Answered By: Steven Profit
Last Updated: Jan 11, 2017     Views: 132

There are several types of bias, depending on the disciplinary approach under consideration. Here are a few definitions.

BiasThe favoring of one side, viewpoint, argument, or disposition over another (compare balance). Bias within journalism is sometimes a conscious and deliberate approach, as in advocacy journalism and some forms of alternative journalism that reject objectivity and impartiality and prefer to state their bias openly to enable members of the audience to take it into consideration. Other forms of bias might be unconscious or the result of structural factors: for example, a newsroom dominated by white, middle-aged, heterosexual men who drive fast cars and are interested in football and rock music from a certain era may not surprisingly end up reporting the world through the eyes and mindset of white, middle-aged, heterosexual men who fast drive cars and are interested in football and rock music from a certain era (see cultural bias). News organizations and journalists frequently find themselves accused of bias; sometimes such accusations are made simultaneously by people on opposing sides of an argument, who all think coverage is biased against them. -- Oxford Dictionary of Journalism

Interview biasBiases that appear in research findings because of the social nature of the interview. There are three major sources of such bias: the interviewer (who may, for example, have prejudices or ask leading questions); the respondent (who may wish to lie or evade questions); and the actual interview situation itself (especially the physical and social setting). -- Oxford Dictionary of Sociology

Observer bias This refers to the cultural assumptions which all researchers bring to their work and which help determine their method of research and their observations. It has been argued by some that all enquiry (including ‘pure’ science) is simply a reflection of such biases. In any event, researchers are usually encouraged to make any known biases explicit in reporting their findings, in order to assist others wishing to reach a judgement as to the validity of the results. --Oxford Dictionary of Sociology

Sample selection biasNon-random selection is both a source of bias in empirical research and a fundamental aspect of many social processes. When observations in social research are selected so that they are not independent of the outcome variables in a study, sample selection bias (sometimes labelled ‘selection effects’) leads to biased inferences about social processes. --A Supplementary Dictionary of Social Research Methods