Q. Who was the first principal of the Avery Normal Institute?

Information from the Lowcountry Digital History Initiative (LDHI) Avery the Spirit that Would Not Die digital exhibition: http://ldhi.library.cofc.edu/exhibits/show/avery/establishingavery


Thomas Cardozo briefly served as the first principal, before his brother Francis replaced him. The Cardozo brothers were the sons of Lydia Williams, a free woman of color, and Isaac N. Cardozo, a Jewish businessman and employee of the United States Custom House in Charleston. Sent abroad to Great Britain for theological studies, Francis L. Cardozo returned to the United States in 1864 and became pastor of the Temple Street Congregational Church in New Haven, Connecticut. In August 1865, he replaced his brother as principal of Charleston’s new AMA school.


  • Last Updated Aug 05, 2020
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  • Answered By Aaisha Haykal

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